Docent Adolf Hoel in his office left. Longyearbyen with coal mine installations around right.
More Jews arrived during the period of the first Crusade inwhile leaving persecution in Bohemia, according to the Chronicler of Prague.
There is also archeological evidence, coins from the period with inscriptions in Hebrew, revealing that other Jewish merchants traveled to Poland in the 12th century. The coins may have belonged to 12th century Jewish traders, Holekhei Rusyah travelers to Russia.
While persecution took place across Europe during the Crusadesin the 13th century, Poland served as a haven for European Jewry because of its relative tolerance. During this period, Poland began its colonization process. It suffered great losses from Mongol invasions in and therefore encouraged Jewish immigrants to settle the towns and villages.
No central authority could stop the immigration. Refugees from Germany brought with them German and Hebrew dialects that eventually became Yiddish Jews were treated well under the rule of Duke Boleslaw Pobozny and King Kazimierz Wielkiaka King Casimir the Great because the now-decentralized nature of Polish polity saw the nobles forced to run their own areas and therefore the Jews- a group with commercial and administrative experience - were fought over to attract to the various townships.
InDuke Boleslaw issued the "Statute of Kalisz," guaranteeing protection of the Jews and granting generous legal and professional rights, including the ability to become moneylenders and businessman.
King Kasimierz ratified the charter and extended it to include specific points of protection from Christians, including guaranteed prosecution against those who "commit a depredation in a Jewish cemetery" and banning people from "accusing the Jews of drinking human blood.
One of the great sages of the time, Jacob Savra of Cracowwas extremely learned in Talmudhis opinions differed from Talmudic authorities in Germany and Bohemia. In the 14th century, opposition arose to the system in which Jews owned land that would be used as collateral for loans.
By the mid's, hatred of the Jews existed among the nobility. According to the Chronica Olivska, Jews throughout Poland were massacred because they were blamed for the Black Death. There were anti-Jewish riots in and again in and and Jews were expelled form the city of Cracow in During the 14th and 15th century, Jews were active in all areas of trade, including cloth, horses, and cattle.
By the end of the 15th century, Polish Jews began trading with Venice, Feodosiya and other Genoese colonies in the Crimea, as well as with Constantinople. Accusation were made against the Jews claiming unfair competition in trade and crafts.
Due to these complaints, inJews were forced to renounce their rights to most trades and crafts. These accusations may have led to the Jewish expulsion from Cracow in Jewish religious life thrived in many Polish communities. ByJews were given permission to choose their own Chief Rabbi.
The Chief Rabbinate held power over law and finance, appointing judges and other officials. Some power was shared with local councils.
The Polish government permitted the Rabbinate to grow in power, to use it for tax collection purposes. Only thirty percent of the money raised by the Rabbinate served Jewish causes, the rest went to the Crown for protection. In this period Poland-Lithuania became the main center for Ashkenazi Jewry and its yeshivot achieved fame from the early 's.H itler's aggressive acquisition of territory began in when he ordered his army to reoccupy the Rhineland district of Germany.
Bordering France, the Rhineland had been designated as a demilitarized zone by the Versailles Treaty ending World War I. It was a high-risk endeavor for Hitler.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the Defensive War (Wojna obronna roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and the Slovak client-state that marked the beginning of World War II.
Invasion and Partition of Poland. On September 1, , Germany invaded Poland. To justify the action, Nazi propagandists falsely claimed that Poland had been planning, with its allies Great Britain and France, to encircle and dismember Germany and that Poles were persecuting ethnic Germans.
Bolstered by the tepid response of Britain and France to his earlier excursions, Hitler set his sights on Poland. However, British Prime Minister Chamberlain had come to the realization that Hitler's territorial ambitions could not .
Apr 15, · Watch video · INVASION OF POLAND IN BY GERMAN ARMY Captured German films.
Reel 1, armored columns assemble for the assault. A building in Danzig is shelled, sprayed with gasoline, and burned. Machine gunners advance on motorcycles; tanks advance. A town is burned and occupied; a bridge over the Vistula is repaired. Troops rest in transit and clean weapons.
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