In so assuming their controversial standpoints, both Machiavelli and Nietzsche postulate that the need to act towards self preservation, self actualization and self aggrandizement is paramount. This relegates man into likeness with the animal kingdom, given that the animal kingdom is merely driven by the need for self preservation, through instincts.
As is frequently the case with philosophical theories, Plato's is centered on a metaphor. In his dialogue MenoPlato points out that there is no practical difference between knowledge and correct opinion.
If your opinion is correct, it will serve as a useful guide to action as well as knowledge. The difference between them is that opinions are transitory while knowledge is secure. True opinions are a fine thing and do all sorts of good so long as they stay in their place, but they will not stay long.
They run away from a man's mind; so they are not worth much until you tether them by working out a reason. Once they are tied down, they become knowledge, and are stable. That is why knowledge is something more valuable than right opinion. What distinguishes the one from the other is the tether.
In the TheaetetusPlato proposed that knowledge is true belief with an account. This is what has become known as the "traditional" analysis of knowledge. Unfortunately, the ensuing discussion of the nature of an account is of little relevance to contemporary theory of knowledge.
Also of little contemporary interest is Plato's description in the Meno and Phaedo of how we obtain knowledge through "recollection" of what was known before we were born.
A listing of Plato resources found on the Web can be found at Episteme Links.Description and explanation of the major themes of Friedrich Nietzsche (–). This accessible literary criticism is perfect for anyone faced with Friedrich Nietzsche (–) essays, papers, tests, exams, or for anyone who needs to create a Friedrich Nietzsche (–) lesson plan.
Nietzsche’s critique of past philosophers Nietzsche identifies his two major grounds for criticizing past philosophers in his Preface: that their theories are founded on ‘some play on words perhaps, some seductive aspect of grammar, or a daring generalization from very limited, very personal, very human, all-too-human facts’.
The concept of evil would have explanatory power, or be explanatorily useful, if it were able to explain why certain actions were performed or why these actions were .
In the preface to Beyond Good & Evil, Nietzsche asserts that “Christianity is Platonism for the masses.”This is because of the division Plato makes between what he sees as actual reality and the reality of our experience.
In Plato’s metaphysics we do not actually access the truest reality, but only see shadows of the Forms. Nietzsche's Affirmative Morality: An Ethics of Virtue Thomas H.
Brobjer not primarily the construction of new philosophies but the production of "new Platos" as he says early in his development, or "new philosophers" as he says later. and thus makes a diagnosis rather than an analysis. This is evidenced by logical analysis of the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, and the nature of the universe.
An ‘academic’ attitude also pertains to such engagement, alongside a willingness to defy orthodox thought and risk societal exclusion.