Robert Mannell One of the earliest machines designed to assist people in calculations was the abacus which is still being used some years after its invention.
It might be one of the toxic sensitizer and irritant on the skin, and initiator of lung diseases, so it is important to understand the characterization and toxic mechanism of MI in the body. In the pharmacokinetic study using rats, presented analysis method was useful for detecting the profile of MI in the plasma.
We determined half-life, clearance and distribution of MI by WinNonlin software and these might be useful information for the study on the toxicokinetics in body. In spite of the introduction of new agents such as L-LAAM and buprenorphine, methadone continues to be the drug of choice for the treatment of heroin addiction.
Due to the wide variation in half-life among individuals reported values hoursthere is a significant ovedose risk. Together with the requirement for effective monitoring of replacement therapy, it emphasizes the need for development of fast, precise and reliable analytical method for quantification of methadone in biological samples.
In this research, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry LC-MS method for determination of methadone in blood was developed, using solid-phase SPE extraction for the preparation of samples.
The chromatographic separation was performed on XTerra MS C18 column, using a mixture of formic buffer pH 3,5 — acetonitrile Linearity was achieved in the range from 0. Retention time of methadone was 5. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 1.
The intra-assay precisions RSD were about 0. The inter-assay precisions RSD were 0. The accuracy varied from Described LC-MS method for analysis of methadone in blood is precise, accurate, reproducible and reliable, with significantly shortened time of analysis run time 10 min.
Due to low therapeutic index of carbamazepine, there is a need for routine measuring its concentrations in serum.
Monitoring of the drug level helps to adjust the dose and achieve optimal therapeutic effects while avoiding subtherapeutic and toxic level. The aim of this study was to determine serum concentration of carbamazepine in patients with epilepsy who are on monotherapy, as well as to show the correlation of different methods on different systems for determination of the drug in serum spectrophotometric and chromatographic method.
For the study were used serums of the patients with epilepsy, 35 serums total. Concentration of carbamazepine in serum, in the interval of reference values had Our results show that the most of patients on carbamazepine therapy have the correct dosage regimen.
The statistical difference between different systems and methods is not significant. There is a strong correlation and connection, so the photometric method is reliable and applicable for routine operation. Box3Institute of general and physical chemistry, P.
Box 45, Belgrade, Republic of Serbia Correspondence: The objectives of this study were to evaluate water quality of wellspring based on physicochemical parameters: The results of volumetric analysis of total water hardness The pH value and specific conductivity were 6.
The calculated TDS from specific conductivity was The ion chromatography IC analysis for anions provided adjacent chloride and nitrate content 0. Determination of urinary metabolite profile provides novel information on phenotypic characteristics of an organism that cannot be obtained from target measurement.
After data processing of raw GC-MS data crucial step is to identify compounds of interest. Due to the complexity of the matrix, wide chemical diversity of the metabolites and their wide concentration range, metabolite identification is intrinsically difficult. A Kovats retention index system uses a series of standards, homologous series of n-alkanes applied as reference peak.
Despite some limitations, presented methods could be very useful in VOMs identification. To confirm identification of unknown VOMs unequivocally, analysis of available analytical standards using the same GC-MS conditions is recommended.
They have different chemical structures from tetrahydrocannabinol THC but similar effects on endocannabinoid receptors. Their popularity is continuously increasing. Inthe emergence of this cannabinoid was reported by two countries, the USA and Cyprus.The Computer History Museum: The website of the world's biggest computer museum in California.
The Computing Age: A BBC special report into computing past, present, and future. Charles Babbage at the London Science Museum: Lots of information about Babbage and his extraordinary engines.
Brief History of Computer Systems, Software, and Programming This article will detail the history of these innovations in mathematics, programming, and software and computer system design. Computers entered American households in the s. In , Bill Gates and Paul.
Bellow is the computer history in brief and the evolution of computers. How did the different types of computers evolve? Here is a brief overview of the progress of computing technology from calculators of the 18th century right up to the modern-day digital portable computers.
a brief computer history The computer as we know it today had its beginning with a 19th century English mathematics professor name Charles Babbage.
He designed the Analytical Engine and it was this design that the basic framework of the computers of today are based on. time,and each gave us either a new and improved computer or an improvement to the existing computer. First generation: – - In the first electronic digital computer was built by Dr.
John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. Brief History of Computer by Ajiboye Daud LITERATURE REVIEW OF COMPUTER HARDWARE Computers have evolved from the fundamental principles of mathematical calculation and language processing.
The computing systems of today are an outcome of the efforts and intellect of mathematicians, logicians, linguists and technologists from .