Let me straight away get to the myth-busting with respect to Gandhi- He was a British agent out to curb the revolutionaries using violent methods to fight British rule, and it is certain that he did not want to save the life of Bhagat Singh. This is a popular myth being peddled by Gandhi-haters nearly everywhere. The revolutionaries, resorting to individual acts of violence against policemen and other government officials, did not have any coherent countrywide mass presence to stir up an organized rebellion that would drive the British out of India.
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Total Cold War and the diffusion of power, —72 The concomitant arrival of the missile age and of an independent and restive Third World multiplied the senses in which politics had become global.
Intercontinental rockets not only meant that the most destructive weapons known could now be propelled halfway around the world in minutes but also, because of the imminent nuclear standoff they heralded, that a Cold War competition would now extend into other realms—science and technology, economic growthsocial welfare, race relations, image making—in which the Soviets or Americans could try to prove that their system was the best.
At the same time, the decolonization of dozens of underdeveloped states in Asia and Africa induced the superpowers to look beyond the original front lines of the Cold War in Europe and East Asia.
These technological and political revolutions would seem to have raised the United States and the Soviet Union to unequaled heights of power.
By the mids the vigorous response of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations to the Cold War challenge seemed to ensure American technological, economic, and military primacy for the forseeable future.
A mere five to seven years later, however, it became clear that the s, far from establishing an American hegemonyhad in fact wrought a diffusion of world power and an erosion of the formerly rigid Cold War blocs. Western Europe and Japannow recovered from the war, also achieved dynamic economic growth in the s, reducing their relative inferiority to the United States and prompting their governments to exercise a greater independence.
The Sino-Soviet splitperhaps the most important event in postwar diplomacy, shattered the unity of the Communist bloc, and Third World countries often showed themselves resistant to superpower coercion or cajoling. By the U. The world after Sputnik Soviet progress and American reaction Premier Khrushchev anticipated the new correlation of forces in his foreign policy address to the 20th Party Congress in In Leninist doctrine this last phrase implied a state of continued competition and Socialist advance without war.
The immediate opportunities for Socialismaccording to Khrushchev, derived from the struggle of the colonial peoples, which the U. Sputnik restored Soviet prestige after the embarrassment in Hungaryshook European confidence in the U.
Eisenhower was apprised in advance of Soviet missile progress thanks in part to overflights of the U-2 spy plane.
By the time of Sputnik the Pentagon already had several parallel programs for ballistic missiles of various types, including the advanced, solid-fueled Polaris and Minuteman.
The great fleet of B and B intercontinental bombers already deployed also assured continued American strategic superiority through the early s.
The frugal Eisenhower thus tried to play down the importance of Sputnik and to discourage a race for arms or prestige, but he was frustrated by a coalition of Democrats, journalists, academics, and hawks of both parties who insisted that the United States not only leapfrog the Soviets in space and missiles but also increase federal support to education, extend more military and economic aid to the Third World, and expand social programs at home intended in part to polish the American image abroad—in short, pursue the Cold War more vigorously.
Eisenhower conceded to this mood in by sponsoring creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and passage of the National Defense Education Actaccelerating weapons programs, and deploying intermediate-range missiles in EnglandItalyand Turkey.
He also acknowledged the expanded Soviet threat in his State of the Union address in The Soviets are, in short, waging total cold war. The Sino-Soviet split A still more energetic U. Western observers looked in vain for ways to split the Communist bloc.
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Demons of the Punjab Review Posted by: Elizabeth Sandifer 3 days, 18 hours ago In any previous season, this would have been a minor gem; in this context, it feels like a cool drink of water in the desert.
On September 11, , all eyes were riveted on New York as the twin towers were attacked. This film explores the causes of the evil that led to the attacks, by documenting 20 years of relations between Washington, the Arab countries, Pakistan and Europe.
Speaking of Gandhi and Nehru, given that these two personalities do not particularly represent any region or caste in the public imagination, the way Patel represents Gujaratis and Ambedkar represents Dalits, these two have conveniently been made verbal punching bags by Hindu rightists, Muslim rightists, ultra-leftist folks (many of whom .