Over time, the sustainability of food production practices has become an important concern.
Develop your conceptual model You need to develop a conceptual model. This will form the basis for your risk assessments and will help you successfully evaluate environmental risks.
Conceptual models for groundwater protection describe important hydraulic, hydro-chemical and biological processes that are at work in the soil, the unsaturated zone and the groundwater itself.
Your model should describe potential environmental impacts associated with the site, and any uncertainties in how the activity will interact with the hydrogeological setting. The nature and scale of these uncertainties will determine the need for any subsequent site investigations and guide the development of any monitoring programmes.
What your model should show Your model should aim to demonstrate the: The conceptual model must explicitly identify whether there is potential for a direct or indirect input of any hazardous substances or non-hazardous pollutants to groundwater. All hazardous substances and non-hazardous pollutants with the exception of ammoniacal nitrogen, ammonium and suspended solids are known as specific substances.
If your discharge includes specific substances, a specific substances assessment will be needed as part of your risk assessment. If you identify the potential for a direct discharge in the conceptual model and risk screening stage, then you must carry out a risk assessment that is correspondingly more detailed.
The main stages to developing an effective conceptual model include: Collect together all available and relevant information to characterise the site and its surroundings from literature, public registers and site reconnaissance. Sources of information include: Water features survey You should undertake a water features survey to include Environmental risk assessment details of any private and licensed groundwater abstractions in the vicinity of the proposed activity including their: Where the geology and hydrogeology of the area is layered, you need to ascertain the construction details of wells and springs to check whether the abstraction is from a shallow vulnerable layer or deeper, confined and protected layer.
Your water features survey should also include information on surface water receptors. The nature and scale of these uncertainties will determine your need for site investigations and guide the development of any site investigation programme.
Use this information to form an initial site conceptual model. You should get preliminary views from the Environment Agency and other interested parties such as local authorities through a pre-application meeting using the initial site conceptual model as a basis for discussion.
You may need to update your conceptual understanding of the activity and its potential impact on the environment accordingly. You can then use this information to produce a more detailed conceptual model.
For example, a landfill source will need to include a range of hazardous substances and non-hazardous pollutants. The risk assessment for land spreading of domestic treated sewage effluent may only need to include a limited range of non-hazardous pollutants.
You can read guidance on: Activities involving discharges such as landfill with many potentially polluting substances need a more complex risk assessment which usually needs site-specific data.
A change in the amount of effective rainfall will alter the rate of recharge and the flow of any contaminants. Different types of aquifer also have different recharge characteristics.
You need to investigate whether effective rainfall is an important consideration for your activity and its proposed location. If it is, you need to estimate how much becomes recharge expressed as mm of rain per year as part of your risk assessment. Drainage, flood risk and surface water features You need to research surface water features wetlands, ditches, streams, rivers, estuaries or coastal waters that may: In addition, the concentration of all non-hazardous pollutants should have been sufficiently reduced through attenuation, degradation and dilution to prevent pollution after mixing with groundwater.
You can find more guidance on the hierarchy of groundwater protection. Your conceptual model will normally include a description geological nature and thickness of the soils including fill materialstrata and rocks separating the activity from the groundwater. You can get this information from regional maps normally 1: You should do this by including a geological map and cross section s in your groundwater risk assessment.
You must provide as part of your conceptual model: You may also need to examine the effect of non-typical maximum groundwater levels in areas sensitive to groundwater flooding, or those with a high water table, to see if the likely effect on groundwater levels during periods of prolonged rainfall affects the overall risk that the activity presents to water quality.
Character and importance of the aquifer You need to investigate the character and importance of the aquifer at your site as part of your conceptual model. Aquifers differ in the way they transmit water to springs, wells, boreholes and rivers. Locally their importance in providing water to receptors also varies as does their vulnerability to pollution.
You can read guidance on aquifers. You need to define the character and importance of the aquifer by: This should be based where possible on gradients derived from water level measurements in boreholes, but in the absence of these you can use published maps.
As a last resort, you can infer the direction if you cannot find either of these — groundwater usually flows naturally from hills to rivers.A health risk assessment (also referred to as a health risk appraisal and health & well-being assessment) is one of the most widely used screening tools in the field of health promotion and is often the first step in multi-component health promotion programs.
Environmental risk assessment in particular is of increasing importance as a means of seeking to address the potential effects of chemicals in the environment in both the developed and developing lausannecongress2018.coms: 2. Risk Assessment Methods: Approaches for Assessing Health and Environmental Risks [V.T.
Covello, M.W. Merkhoher] on lausannecongress2018.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Much has already been written about risk assessment. Epidemiologists write books on how risk assessment is used to explore the factors that influence the distribution of disease in populations of people.
Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis comprehensively explains methods used for estimating risk to people exposed to radioactive materials released to the environment by nuclear facilities or in an emergency such as a nuclear terrorist event. This is the first book that merges the diverse disciplines necessary for estimating where radioactive materials go in the environment.
ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSMENT - ESA (Assessment, Soil Test, Ground Water Test, Contamination Clean-Up). The following year, EPA published Risk Assessment and Management: Framework for Decision Making (USEPA, *), which emphasizes making the risk assessment process transparent, describing the assessment’s strengths and weaknesses more fully, and providing plausible alternatives within .