What an ominous minute is that in which society draws back and consummates the irreparable abandonment of a sentient being! Jean Valjean was condemned to five years in the galleys. It has been adapted to the small and big screen numerous times, and was made into a very well-known musical play that has run for nearly thirty years. As usual for one of Hugo's sprawling epics, it consists of the interweaving stories of many different characters, but the story that holds it all together opens with a recently paroled man named Jean Valjean arriving on foot in Digne, France, come from the shore-prison at Toulon where he's spent the past nineteen years.
The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the most diverse and hostile schools having contributed to it.
The philosopherTaine, drew attention to the affinity between the revolutionary and what he calls the classic spirit, that is, the spirit of abstraction which gave rise to Cartesianism and produced certain masterpieces of French literature.
Moreover he admirably demonstrated the mechanism of the local revolutionary committees and showed how a daring Jacobin minority was able to enforce its will as that of "the people". Following up this line of research M. The influence of freemasonry in the French Revolution proclaimed by Louis Blanc and by freemasonry itself is proved by the researches of M.
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|Les Misérables (Literature) - TV Tropes||A History of the United States came out this year|
|African-American literature - Wikipedia||La Woubette What an ominous minute is that in which society draws back and consummates the irreparable abandonment of a sentient being! Jean Valjean was condemned to five years in the galleys.|
Sorel has brought out the connection between the diplomacy of the Revolution and that of the old regime. His works prove that the Revolution did not mark a break in the continuity of the foreign policy of France.
The radically inclined historical schoolfounded and led by M. Two years since, a schism occured in this schoolM. Mathiez undertaking opposition to M. Such are the most recent additions to the history of the French Revolution.
They comprised three orders, nobility, clergyand the third estate, the last named being permitted to have as many members as the two other orders together.
The electoral regulation of 24 January,assured the parochial clergy a large majority in the meetings of the bailliages which were to elect clerical representatives to the States General.
The clergy advocated almost as forcibly as did the Third Estate the establishment of a constitutional government based on the separation of the powers, the periodical convocation of the States General, their supremacy in financial matters, the responsibility of ministersand the regular guarantee of individual liberty.
Thus the true and great reforms tending to the establishment of liberty were advocated by the clergy on the eve of the Revolution. When the Estates assembled 5 May,the Third Estate demanded that the verification of powers should be made in common by the three orders, the object being that the Estates should form but one assembly in which the distinction between the "orders" should disappear and where every member was to have a vote.
Scarcely a fourth of the clergy advocated this reform, but from the opening of the Estates it was evident that the desired individual voting which would give the members of the Third Estate, the advocates of reform, an effectual preponderance.
As the higher clergy and the nobility still held out, the king caused the hall where the meetings of the Third Estate were held to be closed 20 Junewhereupon the deputies, with their president, Bailly, repaired to the Jeu de Paume and an oath was taken not to disband till they had provided France with a constitution.
Funck-Brentano has destroyed the legends which rapidly arose in connection with the celebrated fortress. There was no rising en masse of the people of Parisand the number of the besiegers was but a thousand at most; only seven prisoners were found at the Bastille, four of whom were forgers, one a young man guilty of monstrous crimes and who for the sake of his family was kept at the Bastille that he might escape the death penaltyand two insane prisoners.
But in the public opinion the Bastille symbolized royal absolutism and the capture of this fortress was regarded as the overthrow of the whole regime, and foreign nations attached great importance to the event.
As a result of the establishment of the "vote by order" the political privileges of the clergy may be considered to have ceased to exist. During the night of 4 August,at the instance of the Vicomte de Noailles, the Assembly voted with extraordinary enthusiasm the abolition of all privileges and feudal rights and the equality of all Frenchmen.
A blow was thereby struck at the wealth of the clergybut the churchmen were the first to give an example of sacrifice. Plurality of benefices and annates was abolished and the redemption of tithes was agreed upon, but two days later, the higher clergy becoming uneasy, demanded another discussion of the vote which had carried the redemption.
The result was the abolition, pure and simple, of tithes without redemption. In the course of the discussion Buzot declared that the property of the clergy belonged to the nation.
He temporized for five weeks, then merely published the decrees as general principles, reserving the right to approve or reject the measures which the Assembly would take to enforce them. Declaration of the rights of man.
Catholicism ceases to be the religion of the state Before giving France a constitution the Assembly judged it necessary to draw up a "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen", which should form a preamble to the Constitution.
The Declaration of Rights mentions in its preamble that it is made in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, but out of three of the articles proposed by the clergyguaranteeing the respect due to religion and public worship, two were rejected after speeches by the ProtestantRabaut Saint-Etienne, and Mirabeau, and the only article relating to religion was worded as follows: It subsequently declared Protestants eligible to all offices 24 Dec.
But it soon became evident in the discussions relating to the Civil Constitution of the clergy that the Assembly desired that the Catholic Churchto which the majority of the French people belonged, should be subject to the State and really organized by the State.
The mob set out to Versaillesand amid insults brought back the king and queen to Paris 6 Oct. Thenceforth the Assembly sat at Parisfirst at the archiepiscopal residence, then at the Tuileries.
At this moment the idea of taking possession of the goods of the clergy in order to meet financial exigencies began to appear in a number of journals and pamphlets.
The plan of confiscating this propertywhich had been suggested as early as 8 August by the Marquis de Lacoste, was resumed 24 Sept. The plan was discussed from 13 October to 2 November. The advocates of confiscation maintained that the clergy no longer existed as an order, that the property was like an escheated succession, and that the State had a right to claim it, that moreover the Royal Government had never expressly recognized the clergy as a proprietor, that in Louis XV had forbidden the clergy to receive anything without the authority of the State, and that he had confiscated the property of the Society of Jesus.
Malouet took an intermediate stand and demanded that the State should confiscate only superfluous ecclesiastical possessions, but that the parochial clergy should be endowed with land. Finally, on 2 November,the Assembly decided that the possessions of the clergy be "placed at the disposal" of the nation.
The results of this vote were not long in following. The discussion of this project began in February,after the Assembly by the creation of assemblies of departments, districts, and commons, had proceeded to the administrative reorganization of France.
The discussion was again very violent. On 13 February,the Assembly, swayed by the more radical suggestions of Barnave and Thouret, decreed as a "constitutional article" that not only should the law no longer recognize monastic vowsbut that religious orders and congregations were and should remain suppressed in Franceand that no others should be established in the future.History and literature eBooks, including the series Daily Life, Critical Companions, Literature in Context, as well as American Slavery: A Composite Autobiography.
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The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Established in , American Indians in Children's Literature (AICL) provides critical perspectives and analysis of indigenous peoples in children's and young adult books, the school curriculum, popular culture, and society.