Social classClass conflictClassless societyand Three-component theory of stratification Marx distinguishes social classes on the basis of two criteria:
These are the principal concepts of Marxism: Exploitation A person is exploited if he or she performs more labour than necessary to produce the goods society consumes; likewise, a person is an exploiter if he or she performs less labour than is necessary to produce goods.
Exploitation has been a socio-economic feature of every class society, and is one of the principal features distinguishing the social classes. The power of one social class to control the means of production enables its exploitation of the other classes.
In capitalism, the labour theory of value is the operative concern; the value of a commodity equals the total labour time required to produce it.
In pre-capitalist economies, exploitation of the worker was achieved via physical coercion. In the capitalist mode of production, that result is more subtly achieved; because the worker does not own the means of production, he or she must voluntarily enter into an exploitive work relationship with a capitalist in order to earn the necessities of life.
The worker's entry into such employment is voluntary in that he or she chooses which capitalist to work for; the worker must work or starve, thus exploitation is inevitable, and the voluntarism of capitalist exploitation is illusory.
Alienation Alienation denotes the estrangement of people from their humanity German: Under capitalism, the fruits of production belong to the employers, who expropriate the surplus created by others, and so generate alienated labourers.
The base corresponds to the social consciousness politics, religion, philosophy, etc. A conflict between the development of material productive forces and the relations of production provokes social revolutions, thus, the resultant changes to the economic base will lead to the transformation of the superstructure.
Class The identity of a social class derives from its relationship to the means of production ; Marx describes the social classes in capitalist societies: Petit bourgeoisie are those who employ labourers, but who also work, i.
Marxism predicts that the continual reinvention of the means of production eventually would destroy the petit bourgeoisie, degrading them from the middle class to the proletariat.
Class consciousness Class consciousness denotes the awareness — of itself and the social world — that a social class possesses, and its capacity to rationally act in their best interests; hence, class consciousness is required before they can effect a successful revolution.
The real motive forces impelling him remain unknown to him; otherwise it simply would not be an ideological process. In Marxism, political economy studies the means of production, specifically of capital, and how that is manifest as economic activity.
Marxist schools of thought Main article: For a discussion of its political practice, see subsection Marxism Marxism as a political practice below. At least in terms of adherents and the impact on the world stage, Marxism-Leninism, also known colloquially as Bolshevism or simply communism is the biggest trend within Marxism, easily dwarfing all of the other schools of thought combined.
There are two broad areas that have set apart Marxism-Leninism as a school of thought. First, Lenin's followers generally view his additions to the body of Marxism as the practical corollary to Marx's original theoretical contributions of the 19th century; insofar as they apply under the conditions of advanced capitalism that they found themselves working in.
Lenin called this time-frame the era of Imperialism. Second, the other distinguishing characteristic of Marxism-Leninism is how it approaches the question of organization. Lenin believed that the traditional model of the Social Democratic parties of the time, which was a loose, multitendency organization was inadequate for overthrowing the Tsarist regime in Russia.
He proposed a hardened cadre organization that disciplined itself under the model of Democratic Centralism.
Marxism-Leninism was closely associated with the figure of Joseph Stalin until his death. Eventually after the death of Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev became the leader of the Soviet Unionan act which ultimately lead to the splintering of the Marxist-Leninism into several competing schools of thought.
First, Khrushchev denounced the so-called Cult of Personality that had developed around Stalin, which ironically enough Khrushchev had had a pivotal role in fostering decades earlier.
More importantly, however, Khrushchev rejected the heretofore orthodox Marxist-Leninist tenet that class struggle continues even under socialism. Rather, the State ought to rule in the name of all classes.
A related principle that flowed from the former was the notion of peaceful co-existenceor that the newly-emergent socialist bloc could peacefully compete with the capitalist world, solely by developing the productive forces of society.
Particularly in Italy, they leaned on the theories of Antonio Gramscidespite the fact that Gramsci happened to consider himself an orthodox Marxist-Leninist.Political Philosophy Essay Examples.
32 total results. The Connection Between the Politics and the Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli. 1, words. 2 pages. Marxism as a Particular Political Philosophy, Economic and Sociological Worldview. 1, words. 3 . Sociological Marxism 2 rubric of “Marxist Sociology” has this character – selectively using particular concepts and themes in the Marxist tradition to understand specific empirical problems.
But one does not have to be a “Marxist” to . Marxism is a particular political philosophy, economic and sociological worldview based upon a materialist interpretation of history, a Marxist analysis of capitalism, a theory of social change, thus the proletariat will seize all political and economic power.
The durability of Marxism is entirely due to its tendency to mobilize those linked to political parties, social movements, and states, not the credibility of its arguments. 3) Using Marxism. Those who use Marxism argue that it has interesting and suggestive ideas and that some remain useful for contemporary social scientific inquiry.
Marxism is a particular political philosophy, with economical and sociological worldview based upon a materialist interpretation of history. An analysis of capitalism, a theory of . Political Philosophy Essay Examples. 32 total results. The Connection Between the Politics and the Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli.
1, words. 2 pages.
Marxism as a Particular Political Philosophy, Economic and Sociological Worldview. 1, words. 3 pages.